5. Dr. Frederica Darema: InfoSymbioticSystems/DDDAS – Large-Scale Dynamic Data and Large-Scale Big Computing for Smart Systems
1. ROSETTA: the challenge of escorting a comet and landing on its surface
Prof. Klaus Schilling, University of Würzburg, Germany
One of the most interesting places in our solar system was 2014/2015 moving between the orbits of Jupiter and Earth, when the European space probe ROSETTA had a rendezvous with the comet 67 P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In November 2014 the PHILAE lander separated from the mother spacecraft and landed by a combination of autonomous reactions and remote controls from a distance of 500 Mio km with high accuracy on the surface of the comet. The unconventional landing ended due to actuator malfunctions in a very interesting cliff, where the foreseen measurements were nevertheless well performed. ROSETTA escorted the comet in near distance during the year 2015, including its passage of closest distance to the Sun in order to observe the development of its tail. This way sublimated pristine materials from the core of the comet could be characterized, providing information from the period when our solar system formed. Scientific journals like „Science“ and „nature“ selected the pioneering ROSETTA mission as scientific top event of the year 2014.
This presentation addresses the software and control background of this complex and challenging mission, which started about 25 years ago and had to respect ambitious technical as well as international challenges. The fascination of space exploration will be illustrated by pictures from this bizarre comet.
Klaus Schilling is
- Professor and Chair for Robotics and Telematics at University Wuerzburg
- President of the research company “Zentrum für Telematik”
- Selected for an ERC Advanced Grant
- Member of the International Academy of Astronautics
- Coordinating chair for the field “Computers and Control” in the International Federation on Automatic Control (IFAC)
- Vice-chair and steering committee member of the IFAC TC on Aerospace
- One of six academic members in the scientific board of the Bavarian Research Foundation
- at EADS/Astrium head of the” Mission and System Analyses Group”
- responsible for feasibility phases of several space missions, including the interplanetary ESA satellites HUYGENS and ROSETTA
- chair of the IFAC TC on Aerospace 2002 – 2005
- chair of the IFAC TC on Telematics: Control via Communication Networks 2008-2014
- chair of the IEEE TC on Networked Robotics
- editor-in-chief of the international journal “Space Technology”
- appointed consulting professor at Stanford University 2002 – 2006
- coordinator and PI of the first German pico-satellite UWE-1 (launched 2005)
- recipient of an ERC Advanced Grant 2012, of the Walter-Reis-Award in Robotic innovations 2012, of the Walter-Reis-Award in Service Robotics 2008
His research interests include autonomous and adaptive control strategies, telematics methods, sensorics, mechatronic systems, and control of distributed systems. These techniques are applied in design and tele-operations of pico-satellites, industrial mobile robots, sensor systems, tele-education and medical systems.
2. Addressing Assurance for Self-Adaptive Systems in the Face of Uncertainty
Prof. Betty H.C. Cheng, Michigan State University, USA
This presentation will overview several research projects that investigate novel ways to model, analyze, and mitigate uncertainty for self-adaptive cyber-physical systems, with a particular focus on assurance. First, uncertainty about the physical environment can lead to suboptimal, and sometimes catastrophic, results as the system tries to adapt to unanticipated or poorly-understood environmental conditions. Second, uncertainty in the cyber environment can lead to unexpected and adverse effects, including not only performance impacts (load, traffic, etc.) but also potential threats or overt attacks. Finally, uncertainty can exist with the components themselves and how they interact upon reconfiguration, including unexpected and unwanted feature interactions. Each of these sources of uncertainty can potentially be identified at different stages, respectively design time and run time, but their mitigation might be done at the same or at a different stage. Based on the related literature and our investigations, we argue that the following three overarching techniques are essential and warrant further research to provide enabling technologies to address uncertainty during both stages: model-based development, automated assurance techniques, and self-adaptation. Furthermore, we posit that in order to go beyond incremental improvements to current software engineering techniques, we need to infuse these three areas with successful techniques and inspirations from other disciplines, such as control theory, machine learning, and biology.
Betty H.C. Cheng is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Michigan State University. Her research interests include self-adaptive systems, requirements engineering, model-driven engineering, automated software engineering, and harnessing evolutionary computation to address software engineering problems. These research areas are used to support the development of high-assurance adaptive systems that must continuously deliver acceptable behavior, even in the face of environmental and system uncertainty. Example applications include intelligent transportation and vehicle systems. She collaborates extensively with industrial partners in her research projects in order to ensure real-world relevance of her research and to facilitate technology exchange between academia and industry. Previously, she was awarded a NASA/JPL Faculty Fellowship to investigate the use of new software engineering techniques for a portion of the shuttle software. She works extensively with industrial collaborators, including one sabbatical working with the Motorola Software Labs investigating automated analysis techniques of specifications of telecommunication systems. She was awarded an international faculty scholarship to explore research techniques for specifying and managing uncertainty in high-assurance systems. She is currently on sabbatical, where she is launching new projects in the area of model-driven approaches to sustainability, cyber security for automotive systems, and feature interaction detection and mitigation for autonomic systems, all in the context of operating under uncertainty while maintaining assurance objectives. Her research has been funded by several federal funding agencies, including NSF, ONR, DARPA, NASA, AFRL, ARO, and numerous industrial organizations. She serves on the editorial boards for Requirements Engineering Journal, and Software and Systems Modeling, and IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. She was the Technical Program Co-Chair for IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE-2013), the premier and flagship conference for software engineering.
She received her BS from Northwestern University in 1985 and her MS and PhD from the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign in 1987 and 1990, respectively, all in computer science. She may be reached at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, 3115 Engineering Building, 428 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824; email@example.com; www.cse.msu.edu/~chengb.
3. Building Autonomic Systems for IT Service Management
Dr. Yixin Diao, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, New York, USA
A large fraction of total cost of ownership for IT systems comes from service and labor costs (80% as estimated by Gartner Group). However, most prevailing practices in IT services are ad-hoc with low productivity. Although modeling and optimization techniques have been widely used in IT infrastructure management, their adoption in IT service management has limited success due to high uncertainties resulting from complex tasks and large human skill variance. This talk explores the principles and methodologies for building autonomic systems that enable a systematic and feedback-based approach to model and optimize IT service management. Particularly, I will discuss the design and deployment of a staffing (staffing levels, shifts, and skills) self-optimization system that uses the simulation-optimization techniques to enable accurate staffing decision-making, coupled with the feedback-based model validation techniques to address the unique service modeling challenges of employing massive data with large inaccuracies. The developed system has been deployed within the IBM’s globally located delivery organizations and resulted in improved resource usage, delivery efficiency, and service quality over a large number of service delivery teams. I will conclude this talk by discussing the future challenges and opportunities of growing autonomic computing capabilities in the IT service management space.
Yixin Diao is a Research Staff Member at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. He received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Ohio State University in 2000. He has published more than eighty papers in systems and services management and is the co-author of the book “Feedback Control of Computing Systems” (Wiley 2004). He received IBM Outstanding Innovation Award in 2005, was named to IBM Master Inventor in 2007, received IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award in 2012, won IBM Extraordinary Research Accomplishment in 2013, and was appointed to IBM Academy of Technology in 2014. He is the recipient of the 2002 Best Paper Award at IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, the 2002-2005 Theory Paper Prize from the International Federation of Automatic Control, the 2008 Best Paper Award at IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, the Second Place of the 2012 Innovation in Analytics Award from Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, and the 2014 Best Paper Award at IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. He served as Program Co-chair for the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management in 2010 and the 13th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management in 2013. He is an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, and Journal of Network and Systems Management. He is a Fellow of IEEE.
4. Cyber-physical control of road freight transport
Prof. Karl H. Johansson, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Freight transportation is of outmost importance for our society and is continuously increasing, particularly in the emerging economies. At the same time, transporting goods on roads accounts for about 26% of all energy consumption and 18% of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union. Despite the influence the transportation system has on our energy consumption and the environment, road transportation is mainly done by individual long-haulage trucks with no real-time coordination or global optimization. In this talk, we discuss how modern information and communication technology supports a cyber-physical transportation system architecture with an integrated logistic system coordinating fleets of trucks traveling together in vehicle platoons. From the reduced air drag, platooning trucks traveling close together can save more than 10% of their fuel consumption. Control and estimation challenges and solutions on various level of this transportation system will be presented. It will be argued that a system architecture utilizing vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication enable receding horizon optimal control of individual trucks as well as optimised vehicle fleet collaborations. Experiments done on European highways will illustrate system performance and safety requirements. The presentation will be based on joint work with collaborators at KTH and at the truck manufacturer Scania.
Karl H. Johansson is Director of the ACCESS Linnaeus Centre and Professor at the School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. He is a Wallenberg Scholar and has held a Senior Researcher Position with the Swedish Research Council. He also heads the Stockholm Strategic Research Area ICT The Next Generation. He received MSc and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Lund University. He has held visiting positions at UC Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Nanyang Technological University, and Institute of Advanced Studies Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. His research interests are in networked control systems, cyber-physical systems, and applications in transportation, energy, and automation systems. He has been a member of the IEEE Control Systems Society Board of Governors and the Chair of the IFAC Technical Committee on Networked Systems. He has been on the Editorial Boards of several journals, including Automatica, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, and IET Control Theory and Applications. He is currently a Senior Editor of IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems and Associate Editor of European Journal of Control. He has been Guest Editor for a special issue of IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control on cyber-physical systems and one of IEEE Control Systems Magazine on cyber-physical security. He was the General Chair of the ACM/IEEE Cyber-Physical Systems Week 2010 in Stockholm and IPC Chair of many conferences. He has served on the Executive Committees of several European research projects in the area of networked embedded systems. He received the Best Paper Award of the IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems in 2009 and the Best Theory Paper Award of the World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation in 2014. In 2009 he was awarded Wallenberg Scholar, as one of the first ten scholars from all sciences, by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. He was awarded Future Research Leader from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research in 2005. He received the triennial Young Author Prize from IFAC in 1996 and the Peccei Award from the International Institute of System Analysis, Austria, in 1993. He received Young Researcher Awards from Scania in 1996 and from Ericsson in 1998 and 1999. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.
5. InfoSymbioticSystems/DDDAS – Large-Scale Dynamic Data and Large-Scale Big Computing for Smart Systems
Dr. Frederica Darema, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA
The presentation will discuss DDDAS, a paradigm which unifies systems’ modeling and instrumentation aspects, and is creating new and revolutionary capabilities for improved understanding, analysis, and optimized, autonomic management and decision support of operational of engineered and natural multi-entity systems, and including human and societal systems. Key underlying concept in DDDAS is the dynamic integration of instrumentation data and executing models of the system in a feedback control loop – that is on-line data are dynamically incorporated into the systems’ executing model, to improve the modeling accuracy or to speed-up the simulation, and in reverse the executing model controls the instrumentation to selectively and adaptively target the data collection process, and dynamically manage collective sets of sensors and controllers. DDDAS is timely with the advent of Large-Scale-Dynamic-Data and Large-Scale-Big-Computing. Large-Scale-Dynamic-Data encompasses the next wave of Big Data, and namely dynamic data arising from ubiquitous sensing and control in engineered, natural, and societal systems, through multitudes of heterogeneous sensors and controllers instrumenting these systems, and where the opportunities and challenges at these “large-scales” relate not only to the size of the data but the heterogeneity in data, data collection modalities, data fidelities, and timescales, ranging from real-time data to archival data. In tandem with this important dimension of dynamic data, there is an extended view of Big Computing, which includes a new dimension of computing – the collective computing by networked assemblies of multitudes of sensors and controllers, this range from the high-end to the real-time seamlessly integrated and unified, and comprising the Large-Scale-Big-Computing. In that context the traditional notions of Cloud-computing need also to be extended to also include the referenced range of the instrumentation platforms. The DDDAS paradigm, driving and exploiting these notions of Large-Scale Dynamic Data and Large-Scale Big Computing, is shaping research directions and engendering transformative impact in a range of natural and engineered systems application areas. Spanning environments from the nanoscale to the terra-scale and the extra-terra-scale environments, examples of advances and new capabilities that will be presented include: materials analysis and decision support for structural systems; manufacturing systems; cellular, neural, and biorobotic systems; environmental systems; critical infrastructure systems, such as urban and air transportation, energy powergrids, and smart agriculture.
Dr. Frederica Darema is with the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, where she is managing the Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) Program, and also served as the Director of the Mathematics, Information and Life Sciences Directorate at AFOSR. Prior to that, she held executive level positions at NSF, as Senior Science and Technology Advisor, and Senior Science Analyst, in the Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate at NSF. Dr. Darema received her BS degree from the School of Physics and Mathematics of the University of Athens – Greece, and MS and Ph. D. degrees in Theoretical Nuclear Physics from the Illinois Institute of Technology and the University of California at Davis, respectively, where she attended as a Fulbright Scholar and a Distinguished Scholar. After Physics Research Associate positions at the University of Pittsburgh and Brookhaven National Lab, she received an APS Industrial Fellowship and became a Technical Staff Member in the Nuclear Sciences Department at Schlumberger-Doll Research. Subsequently, she joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center as a Research Staff Member in the Computer Sciences Department, and later-on she established a multidisciplinary research group on parallel applications and became the Research Manager of that group. While at IBM she also served in the IBM Corporate Technical Strategy Group, examining and helping to set corporate-wide strategies. Dr. Darema’s interests and technical contributions span the development of parallel applications, parallel algorithms, programming models, environments, and performance methods and tools for the design of applications and of software for parallel and distributed systems. In her career Dr. Darema has developed initiatives and programs that are recognized as having “changed the landscape of Computer Science research”; such initiatives include: the Next Generation Systems Program on novel research directions in systems software, and the DDDAS paradigm which has been characterized as “visionary” and “revolutionary”. She has also led initiatives on research at the interface of neurobiology and computing, and other across-NSF and cross-agency initiatives and programs, such as those on: Information Technology Research; Nanotechnology Science and Engineering; Scalable Enterprise Systems; and Sensors. During 1996–1998, she completed a two-year assignment at DARPA where she initiated a new thrust for research on methods and technology for performance engineered systems. Dr. Darema was elected IEEE Fellow for proposing the SPMD (Single-Program-Multiple-Data) computational model that has become the predominant model for programming high-performance parallel and distributed computers. Dr. Darema is also the recipient of the IEEE Technical Achievement Award, for her work in pioneering DDDAS. Dr. Darema has given numerous keynotes and other invited presentations in professional forums.